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In "His Last Bow", Holmes has retired to a small farm on the Sussex Downs and taken up beekeeping as his primary occupation. The move is not dated precisely, but can be presumed to predate since it is referred to retrospectively in "The Second Stain", first published that year.

The story features Holmes and Watson coming out of retirement to aid the war effort. Watson describes Holmes as " bohemian " in his habits and lifestyle.

Described by Watson in The Hound of the Baskervilles as having a "cat-like" love of personal cleanliness, Holmes is an eccentric with no regard for contemporary standards of tidiness or good order.

In many of the stories, Holmes dives into an apparent mess to find a relevant item. Although in his methods of thought he was the neatest and most methodical of mankind He had a horror of destroying documents Thus month after month his papers accumulated, until every corner of the room was stacked with bundles of manuscript which were on no account to be burned, and which could not be put away save by their owner.

The detective starves himself at times of intense intellectual activity, such as during " The Adventure of the Norwood Builder "—wherein, according to Watson:.

While the detective is usually dispassionate and cold, during an investigation he is animated and excitable.

He has a flair for showmanship, preparing elaborate traps to capture and expose a culprit often to impress observers.

Holmes derives pleasure from baffling police inspectors with his deductions and has supreme confidence—bordering on arrogance—in his intellectual abilities.

While the detective does not actively seek fame and is usually content to let the police take public credit for his work, [38] he is pleased when his skills are recognised and responds to flattery.

Except for that of Watson, Holmes avoids casual company. In "The Adventure of the Gloria Scott " , he tells the doctor that during two years at college he made only one friend: I never mixed much with the men of my year".

The detective is similarly described in A Study in Scarlet. As shooting practice during a period of boredom, Holmes decorates the wall of his Baker Street lodgings with a "patriotic" VR Victoria Regina in "bullet-pocks" from his revolver.

His enjoyment of vocal music, particularly Wagner , is evident in " The Adventure of the Red Circle ". Holmes occasionally uses addictive drugs, especially in the absence of stimulating cases.

He uses cocaine , which he injects in a seven-percent solution with a syringe kept in a Morocco leather case. Although Holmes also dabbles in morphine , he expresses strong disapproval when he visits an opium den ; both drugs were legal in 19th-century England.

Watson and Holmes both use tobacco, smoking cigarettes, cigars, and pipes. In " The Problem of Thor Bridge ", the detective says, "My professional charges are upon a fixed scale.

I do not vary them, save when I remit them altogether". In this context, a client is offering to double his fee, and it is implied that wealthy clients habitually pay Holmes more than his standard rate.

Although when the stories begin Holmes needed Watson to share the rent for their residence, by the time of "The Final Problem", he says that his services to the government of France and "the royal family of Scandinavia" had left him with enough money to retire comfortably.

How can you build on such quicksand? Their most trivial actions may mean volumes Women are never to be entirely trusted—not the best of them".

Watson says in " The Adventure of the Copper Beeches " that the detective inevitably "manifested no further interest in the client when once she had ceased to be the centre of one of his problems".

At the end of The Sign of Four , Holmes states that "love is an emotional thing, and whatever is emotional is opposed to that true cold reason which I place above all things.

I should never marry myself, lest I bias my judgement. Despite his overall attitude, Holmes is adept at effortlessly putting his clients at ease, and Watson says that although the detective has an "aversion to women", he has "a peculiarly ingratiating way with [them]".

Hudson is fond of Holmes because of his "remarkable gentleness and courtesy in his dealings with women. He disliked and distrusted the sex, but he was always a chivalrous opponent".

Although this is her only appearance, she is one of only a handful of people who best Holmes in a battle of wits, and the only woman.

For this reason, Adler is the frequent subject of pastiche writing. The beginning of the story describes the high regard in which Holmes holds her:.

To Sherlock Holmes she is always the woman. I have seldom heard him mention her under any other name. In his eyes she eclipses and predominates the whole of her sex.

It was not that he felt any emotion akin to love for Irene Adler As the story opens, the Prince is engaged to another.

Adler slips away before Holmes can succeed. Her memory is kept alive by the photograph of Adler that Holmes received for his part in the case, and he refers to her from time to time in subsequent stories.

His speech is peppered with references to the Bible, Shakespeare , and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe , and the detective quotes a letter from Gustave Flaubert to George Sand in the original French.

In "The Adventure of the Bruce-Partington Plans", Watson says that "Holmes lost himself in a monograph which he had undertaken upon the Polyphonic Motets of Lassus ", considered "the last word" on the subject.

In A Study in Scarlet , Holmes claims to be unaware that the earth revolves around the sun since such information is irrelevant to his work; after hearing that fact from Watson, he says he will immediately try to forget it.

The later stories move away from this notion: Holmes demonstrates a knowledge of psychology in "A Scandal in Bohemia", luring Irene Adler into betraying where she hid a photograph based on the premise that an unmarried woman will save her most valued possession from a fire.

Another example is in " The Adventure of the Blue Carbuncle ", where Holmes obtains information from a salesman with a wager: I daresay that if I had put pounds down in front of him, that man would not have given me such complete information as was drawn from him by the idea that he was doing me on a wager".

Maria Konnikova points out in an interview with D. Grothe that Holmes practices what is now called mindfulness, concentrating on one thing at a time, and almost never "multitasks.

In "A Scandal in Bohemia", Holmes infers that Watson had got wet lately and had "a most clumsy and careless servant girl". When Watson asks how Holmes knows this, the detective answers:.

It is simplicity itself Obviously they have been caused by someone who has very carelessly scraped round the edges of the sole in order to remove crusted mud from it.

Hence, you see, my double deduction that you had been out in vile weather, and that you had a particularly malignant boot-slitting specimen of the London slavey.

Watson compares Holmes to C. Alluding to an episode in " The Murders in the Rue Morgue ", where Dupin determines what his friend is thinking despite their having walked together in silence for a quarter of an hour, Holmes remarks: He observes the dress and attitude of his clients and suspects, noting skin marks such as tattoos , contamination such as ink stains or clay on boots , emotional state, and physical condition in order to deduce their origins and recent history.

Holmes does employ deductive reasoning as well. Though Holmes is famed for his reasoning capabilities, his investigative technique relies heavily on the acquisition of hard evidence.

Because of the small scale of much of his evidence, the detective often uses a magnifying glass at the scene and an optical microscope at his Baker Street lodgings.

Ballistics feature in "The Adventure of the Empty House" when spent bullets are recovered and matched with a suspected murder weapon.

Holmes displays a strong aptitude for acting and disguise. In the latter story, Watson says, "The stage lost a fine actor As a gentleman, Holmes often carries a stick or cane.

He is described by Watson as an expert at singlestick and uses his cane twice as a weapon. The detective is described or demonstrated as possessing above-average physical strength.

Roylott demonstrates his strength by bending a fire poker in half. Holmes is an adept bare-knuckle fighter; "The Adventure of the Gloria Scott " mentions that Holmes trained as a boxer.

You might have aimed high if you had joined the fancy. The detective occasionally engages in hand-to-hand combat with his adversaries in "The Adventure of the Solitary Cyclist" and " The Adventure of the Naval Treaty ".

Although Holmes is not the original fictional detective, his name has become synonymous with the role. The phrase " Elementary, my dear Watson " has become one of the most quoted and iconic aspects of the character.

William Gillette is widely considered to have originated the phrase with the formulation, "Oh, this is elementary, my dear fellow", allegedly in his play Sherlock Holmes.

It also appears at the end of the film The Return of Sherlock Holmes , the first Holmes sound film. The Sherlockian game also known as the Holmesian game, the Great Game, or simply the Game attempts to resolve anomalies and clarify details about Holmes and Watson from the canon.

Ronald Knox is credited with inventing the Game. The chronology of the stories is notoriously difficult, with many stories lacking dates and many others containing contradictory ones.

She instead argues that details in "The Adventure of the Gloria Scott " a story with no precise internal date indicate that Holmes finished his second and final year of university in or If he began university at age 17, his birth year could be as late as Klinger has suggested that Holmes exhibits signs of bipolar disorder , with intense enthusiasm followed by indolent self-absorption.

Both are still active, although the Sherlock Holmes Society was dissolved in and revived in The London society is one of many worldwide who arrange visits to the scenes of Holmes adventures, such as the Reichenbach Falls in the Swiss Alps.

The two societies founded in were followed by many more, first in the U. There are at least societies worldwide, including Australia, Canada The Bootmakers of Toronto , India, and Japan whose society has 80, members.

In , the Sherlock Holmes Museum opened on Baker Street in London, followed the next year by a museum in Meiringen near the Reichenbach Falls dedicated to the detective.

The London Metropolitan Railway named one of its 20 electric locomotives deployed in the s for Sherlock Holmes.

He was the only fictional character so honoured, along with eminent Britons such as Lord Byron , Benjamin Disraeli , and Florence Nightingale.

A number of London streets are associated with Holmes. In , the Royal Society of Chemistry bestowed an honorary fellowship on Holmes for his use of forensic science and analytical chemistry in popular literature, making him as of the only fictional character thus honoured.

The popularity of Sherlock Holmes has meant that many writers other than Arthur Conan Doyle have created tales of the detective in a wide variety of different media, with varying degrees of fidelity to the original characters, stories, and setting.

According to The Alternative Sherlock Holmes: A common pastiche approach is to create a new story fully detailing an otherwise-passing canonical reference such as an aside by Conan Doyle mentioning the " giant rat of Sumatra , a story for which the world is not yet prepared" in " The Adventure of the Sussex Vampire ".

Other adaptations have seen the character taken in radically different directions or placed in different times or even universes.

For example, Holmes falls in love and marries in Laurie R. It was made into a film of the same name in and popularised the pastiche-writing trend of incorporating clearly identified and contemporaneous historical figures such as Oscar Wilde , Aleister Crowley , or Jack the Ripper into tales featuring Holmes, something Conan Doyle himself never did.

The author wrote other material, especially plays, featuring Holmes. Much of it appears in Sherlock Holmes: Milne , and P. Wodehouse have all written Sherlock Holmes pastiches.

Some authors have written tales centred on characters from the canon other than Holmes. Trow has written a series of seventeen books using Inspector Lestrade as the central character, beginning with The Adventures of Inspector Lestrade in Martin Davies has written three novels where Baker Street housekeeper Mrs.

Hudson is the protagonist. Mycroft Holmes has been the subject of several efforts: Enter the Lion by Michael P. Hodel and Sean M. Anthologies edited by Michael Kurland and George Mann are entirely devoted to stories told from the perspective of characters other than Holmes and Watson.

Her Holmes, semi-retired in Sussex, is stumbled upon by a teenaged American girl. Recognising a kindred spirit, he trains her as his apprentice and subsequently marries her.

The Final Solution , a novella by Michael Chabon , concerns an unnamed but long-retired detective interested in beekeeping who tackles the case of a missing parrot belonging to a Jewish refugee boy.

There have been a host of scholarly works dealing with Sherlock Holmes, some working within the bounds of the Great Game, and some written with the understanding that Holmes is a fictional character.

In particular, there have been three major annotated editions of the complete series. Owen Dudley Edwards , a nine-volume set written in a straight scholarly manner.

Guinness World Records has listed Holmes as the "most portrayed movie character", [2] with more than 70 actors playing the part in over films.

His first screen appearance was in the Mutoscope film, Sherlock Holmes Baffled. In addition to its popularity, the play is significant because it, rather than the original stories, introduced one of the key visual qualities commonly associated with Holmes today: In his lifetime, Gillette performed as Holmes some 1, times.

In the early s, H. Saintsbury took over the role from Gillette for a tour of the play. While the Fox films were period pieces, the Universal films abandoned Victorian Britain and moved to a then-contemporary setting in which Holmes occasionally battled Nazis.

The series was co-directed by Hayao Miyazaki. Between and , Soviet television produced a series of five television films, The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes and Dr.

Watson was played by David Burke in the first two series and Edward Hardwicke in the remainder. A Game of Shadows.

In May a release date of 25 December was set for the third film in the series. The film Mr. Holmes starred Ian McKellen as a retired Sherlock Holmes living in Sussex, in , who grapples with an unsolved case involving a beautiful woman.

Holmes has also appeared in video games, including the Sherlock Holmes series of eight main titles. According to the publisher, Frogwares , the series has sold over seven million copies.

On 14 February , Leslie S. Klinger lawyer and editor of The New Annotated Sherlock Holmes filed a declaratory judgement suit against the Conan Doyle estate in the Northern District of Illinois asking the court to acknowledge that the characters of Holmes and Watson were public domain in the U.

This final step resulted in the characters from the Holmes stories, along with all but nine of the stories themselves those present in The Case-Book other than "The Adventure of the Mazarin Stone", "The Problem of Thor Bridge", and "The Adventure of the Creeping Man" , being in the public domain in the U.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Sherlock Holmes disambiguation. Sherlock Holmes in a illustration by Sidney Paget.

Sherlock Holmes Museum, London. List of authors of new Sherlock Holmes stories. Adaptations of Sherlock Holmes. List of actors who have played Sherlock Holmes.

Canon of Sherlock Holmes. Sherlock Holmes portal Novels portal Fictional characters portal Victorian era portal. Retrieved 23 April The New York Times.

Retrieved 10 March Retrieved 23 March A to Z Paperback ed. Our Gods Wear Spandex: Lancelyn Green, Richard, ed. The Oxford Sherlock Holmes: The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes.

The Annotated Sherlock Holmes. The Arthur Conan Doyle Encyclopedia. Retrieved 10 November Retrieved 15 January The New Annotated Sherlock Holmes.

The Baker Street Journal. The Sherlock Holmes Handbook. Mason contends that Nancy owes her popularity largely to "the appeal of her high-class advantages.

The word dainty is a subversive affirmation of a feminized universe. But adventure is the superstructure, domesticity the bedrock. Others argue that "Nancy, despite her traditionally feminine attributes, such as good looks, a variety of clothes for all social occasions, and an awareness of good housekeeping, is often praised for her seemingly masculine traits I must confess, though, that I love it.

Many other changes were relatively minor. The new books were bound in yellow with color illustrations on the front covers. Critics saw this Nancy of the s, s, and s as an improvement in some ways, a step back in others: To test whether this would work, the final two novels before the sale, The Bluebeard Room and The Phantom of Venice , were used as backdoor pilots for the new series.

The books read drastically different from the preceding novels of the past 55 years. The Nancy Drew character of the Files series has earned mixed reviews among fans.

She is often pictured with an attentive, handsome male in the background, and frequently appears aware of and interested in that male.

Nancy also becomes more vulnerable, being often chloroformed into unconsciousness, or defenseless against chokeholds.

The Files also launched its own spin off. A crossover spin-off series with The Hardy Boys , titled the Supermystery series, began in These books read more similar to soap opera books, such as the Sweet Valley High series.

The On Campus books focus more on romance plots, and also centered around other characters; the mysteries were merely used as subplots. By reader request, Nancy broke off her long-term relationship with boyfriend Ned Nickerson in the second volume of the series, On Her Own The Files series ran until the end of , while both the Supermystery and on Campus series ran until the beginning of The Nancy Drew of the Girl Detective series drives a hybrid car, uses a mobile phone, and recounts her mysteries in the first person.

Many applaud these changes, arguing that Nancy has not really changed at all other than learning to use a cell phone.

The character is also the heroine of a series of graphic novels , begun in and produced by Papercutz. The graphic novels are written by Stefan Petrucha and illustrated in manga -style artwork by Sho Murase.

When the film was released, a non-canon novelization of the movie was written to look like the older books. Two books were also written for the Girl Detective and Clue Crew series, both of which deal with a mystery on a movie set.

In , the Girl Detective series was re-branded into trilogies and to have a model on the cover. These mysteries became deeper, with the mystery often spread across three books, and multiple culprits.

With the new trilogy format, sales began slipping. In December , they finally announced that the series was cancelled along with the Hardy Boys Undercover Brothers series.

The Diaries series began in Although her age is not mentioned, Nancy is about eighteen years old she appears to be about thirteen to fourteen on the cover art.

However, Nancy has certain freedoms of an eighteen-year-old a nonrestrictive license, college-aged boyfriend, travels without supervision , and while her immature appearance is not commented on, her speech and actions are written as someone in their late teens.

The series is similar to its predecessor, in that the books are narrated in first person, Nancy is still absent-minded and awkward, and references are made to pop culture and technology with mixed accuracy.

Situations and problems in typical "tween books" are also carried over to this series. In contrast to the Girl Detective series, Nancy is written with in more juvenile voice, and does not navigate the world of adults as in previous incarnations.

In addition, Nancy is found to have a lack of motivation in solving mysteries — Nancy often states she is avoiding mysteries, or is "on a break" from sleuthing; Nancy also can act timid and scared at times.

Like the Girl Detective series, the Diaries series has received negative fan reception. Now in addition to the same issues the Girl Detective books faced, the Diaries faces even more criticism.

New additions to criticism involve: Specific examples about criticism of the series lie in two specific books: In The Sign in the Smoke , Nancy refuses to solve the mystery until partway through; and it was not Nancy who actually solved the case, but a secondary character.

In The Haunting on Heliotrope Lane , fans complain Nancy and her friends act out-of-character, and that there are frequent mentions of Nancy and her friends being scared, screaming, or "peeing their pants".

As more books came out, fans of the character began comparing it to its Hardy Boys counterpart, The Hardy Boys Adventures , and concluded that the problems that existed in the Diaries series did not exist in the Adventures series.

Fans have pointed out that the Adventures stories are well-written, with varying storylines, and competent protagonists, who do not complain about solving mysteries; in addition, it has been noted that The Hardy Boys are able to do more activities, and be involved in more dangerous situations, as boys, while Nancy, a female, is not able to.

He also makes good use of his professional connections and privileges to help Nancy solve her cases. He frequently leaves Nancy to her sleuthing while he travels on business throughout the book series, he frequently goes away on business trips.

On numerous occasions, Nancy has had to save her father from danger, including several kidnappings. Drew is always proud of Nancy when she has solved and finished a case.

In the films of the s he is played by John Litel. In the films Carson Drew is a far more patrician and authoritarian figure than in the books.

Consistent with other Stratemeyer Syndicate properties, the Nancy Drew novels were written by various writers, all under the pen name Carolyn Keene.

Edward Stratemeyer and his daughters Harriet Adams and Edna Stratemeyer Squier wrote most of the outlines for the original Nancy Drew series until Usually, other writers wrote the manuscripts.

Most of the early volumes were written by Mildred Wirt Benson. Strong , Iris Vinton, [82] and Patricia Doll. Edward Stratemeyer edited the first three volumes, and Harriet Adams edited most subsequent volumes until her death in In , the earlier titles were revised, largely by Adams.

Adams filed a countersuit, claiming the case was in poor taste and frivolous, and that, as author of the Nancy Drew series, she retained the rights to her work.

Although Adams had written many of the titles after , and edited others, she claimed to be the author of all of the early titles.

In fact, she had rewritten the older titles and was not their original author. The court ruled that Grosset had the rights to publish the original series as they were in print in , but did not own characters or trademarks.

Furthermore, any new publishers chosen by Adams were completely within their rights to print new titles. Nancy Drew has been illustrated by many artists over the years, and her look constantly updated.

Arguably her most characteristic physical depiction is that she is shown holding a flashlight. Commercial artist Russell H.

Tandy was the first artist to illustrate Nancy Drew. Tandy was a fashion artist and infused Nancy with a contemporary fashion sensibility: As styles changed over the next few years, Nancy began to appear in glamorous frocks, with immaculately set hair, pearls, matching hats, gloves, and handbags.

Tandy read each text before he began sketching, so his early covers were closely connected to specific scenes in the plots. He also hand-painted the cover lettering and designed the original Nancy Drew logo: Tandy often portrays Nancy Drew with confident, assertive body language.

She never appears "shocked, trepidatious, or scared". As a result, the Tandy dust-jackets are considered very valuable by collectors.

In postwar opulence, a trend emerged for young adults to have their own casual style, instead of dressing in the same styles as more mature adults, and Nancy becomes less constrained.

Sweater or blouse and skirt ensembles, as well as a pageboy hairstyle, were introduced in , and continued with new artist Bill Gillies, who updated 10 covers and illustrated three new jackets from to Gillies also designed the modern-era trademark as a spine symbol which was used for decades: The Ghost of Blackwood Hall shows an assertive Nancy leading more timid friends up the front steps of the haunted house, and marks a transition to later illustrations.

From forward, she is likely to be observing others, often hiding or concealing herself. She appears to be a bit taken aback by what she sees, but she looks as if she is still in control of the situation.

Only occasionally is she shown in action, such as running from the scene of a fire, riding a horse, or actively sleuthing with a flashlight.

At times she is only involved in action as her hiding place has been discovered by others. In most cases, more active scenes are used for the frontispiece, or in books after , illustrations throughout the text drawn by uncredited illustrators.

Joseph Rudolf "Rudy" Nappi, the artist from to , illustrated a more average teenager. Nappi gave Nancy Peter Pan collars , shirtwaist dresses, a pageboy later a flip haircut, and the occasional pair of jeans.

The change was long rumored to have been the result of a printing ink error, but was considered so favorable that it was adopted in the text for books published after , and by illustrator Polly Bolian for volumes she created for a special book club in — The change was to reduce production costs.

Several of the s and s cover illustrations were updated by Nappi for this change, depicting a Nancy of the Kennedy era, though the stories themselves were not updated.

Unlike Tandy, Nappi did not read the books before illustrating them; instead, his wife read them and provided him with a brief plot summary before Nappi began painting.

This Nancy was perky, clean-cut, and extremely animated. Although she wears bold colors and prints, or the background colors are shades of electric yellow, shocking pink, turquoise, or apple green, her clothing is high-necked and with long hemlines.

Earlier Nappi covers show Nancy in poses similar to those in the covers by Tandy and Gillies; for many updated covers he simply updated the color scheme, clothing style, and hairstyles of the characters but retains their original poses in similar settings.

These Nappi covers would later be used for the opening credits of the television production, with photos of Pamela Sue Martin inserted on the book covers.

Instead, Nancy is shown thinking about the clues"; [] in general, Nancy becomes less confident and more puzzled. Ruth Sanderson and Paul Frame provided cover art and interior illustrations for the first Nancy Drew paperbacks, published under the Wanderer imprint.

Other artists, including Aleta Jenks and others whose names are unknown, [] provided cover art, but no interior illustrations, for later paperbacks.

Nancy is portrayed as "a wealthy, privileged sleuth who looks pretty and alert Nancy is frequently portrayed pursuing a suspect, [] examining a clue, or observing action.

She is often also shown in peril: Nancy does not have any control over the events that are happening in these covers. She is shown to be a victim, being hunted and attacked by unseen foes.

Nancy is also sometimes pursued by a visibly threatening foe, as on the cover of The Case of the Vanishing Veil The covers of The Nancy Drew Files and Girl Detective series represent further departures from the bold, confident character portrayed by Tandy.

The Nancy portrayed on the covers of The Nancy Drew Files is "a markedly sexy Nancy, with a handsome young man always lurking in the background.

Her clothes often reveal an ample bustline and her expression is mischievous. Her eyes, for example, are confined to a strip across the top of the cover while her mouth is located near the spine in a box independent of her eyes.

The longest-running series of books to feature Nancy Drew is the original Nancy Drew series, whose volumes were published from to Nancy also appeared in titles in The Nancy Drew Files and is currently the heroine of the Diaries series.

While Nancy Drew is the central character in each series, continuity is preserved only within one series, not between them all; for example, in concurrently published titles in the Nancy Drew series and the Nancy Drew on Campus series, Nancy is respectively dating her boyfriend Ned Nickerson or broken up with Ned Nickerson.

Nancy Drew Diaries is the current series and started in This is a reboot of the Nancy Drew: The series is described as "A classic Nancy Drew with her modern twist".

While similar to the Nancy Drew, Girl Detective series, this series includes situations and problems typical in young adult "tween" books.

The mystery element is not always the main focus of the characters, and often Nancy states she is avoiding mysteries or "on a break" from sleuthing.

This Nancy does not navigate in the world of adults as previous versions of the character. The first person narration reveals a juvenile voice with a passive role in the action and a lack of motivation in solving mysteries.

In book 12 The Sign in the Smoke Nancy does not solve the mystery, a secondary character comes up with the solution. In several books Nancy stumbles upon the solution to the "mystery" and acts amazed at the reveal.

This is in contrast to the set-up of previous Nancy Drew series. The character of Nancy Drew seems to be more popular in some countries than others.

Other countries, such as Estonia , have only recently begun printing Nancy Drew books. Cover art and series order is often changed as well, and in many countries only a limited number of Drew books are available in translation.

Five feature films, two television shows, and four television pilots featuring Nancy Drew have been produced to date.

No television show featuring Nancy Drew has lasted longer than two years, and film portrayals of the character have met with mixed reviews.

In , Warner Bros. Adams sold the rights to Jack L. Warner without an agent or any consultation; thus, she sold all and any film rights to Warner Bros.

From to , four films in the series were released. All of them were directed by William Clemens , written by Torchy Blane writer Kenneth Gamet, and had the same primary cast:.

The four films were released as B-films a shorter film shows before the main picture, which usually lasted around 60 minutes:. The series was announced by Warner Bros.

However, for unclear reasons, Farrow and White were replaced by Clemens and Gamet, and production was delayed to August. The first two films did well enough to allow Warner Bros.

After the second film, Warner Bros. Gamet was once again re-hired to write for the series, and completed writing the eight films. Shortly after production of the fourth film wrapped in May, Warner Bros.

Although they initially announced the Nancy Drew series would be converted into two-reelers, they cancelled those plans days later.

The fifth film was written, and may have been produced. Frankie Thomas believes that he and Granville made five films, not four.

The films took many liberties from its source material. In addition to these four, new character Captain Tweedy was added, to portray the stereotypical bumbling, clueless cop that mirrored Steve McBride in the Torchy Blane series.

The characters of Bess Marvin, George Fayne, and Helen Corning, did not appear in the film series, and were never mentioned or referred to.

In addition to the character changes, the tone and pacing of the films was also matured and altered for comic effect and to accommodate a wider audience.

The films changed the less-severe crimes and adventures of the books into gruesome murders, that are often spearheaded by dangerous criminals. While book Nancy was usually treated with authority and equal respect to other adults while solving the mystery professionally, the films portrayed Nancy as a meddling school girl who chased adventures, much to the misery of the adults and peers around her.

Critical reaction to these films is mixed. Contrary to Adams, Benson was said to have liked the films of the time, despite them being different from the character she wrote.

To promote the film, Warner Bros. The series become somewhat of a cult success after the films started appearing on cable channels such as Turner Classic Movies.

The films were arguably ones in which all five cast members were notable for in their careers. Granville recalled making the films fondly, and stated her favorite film of the series was Nancy Drew… Trouble Shooter.

A new film version for Nancy Drew had been in the works at Warner Bros. However, nothing came into fruition until the mid s.

On June 15, , Warner Bros. This film saw Nancy move to Los Angeles with her father on an extended business trip, and picking the house of a murdered movie star as their house to solve the cold case.

Before the release of the film, Roberts, Fleming, and Weintraub had signed on for two Nancy Drew sequels. As with the earlier Drew films, reactions were mixed.

Some see the film as updated version of the basic character: On April 20, , Warner Bros. The film will not be related to the previous film starring Bonita Granville.

This series is regarded as the most faithful series to the books; Martin is often regarded by many Nancy Drew fans as the best actress to portray her.

The series was also faithful in its tone of smaller mysteries, such as haunted houses or theft. The first season originally alternated with The Hardy Boys; The Hardy Boys was met with success, but the Drew episodes were met with mixed results.

In the second season, the format shifted to present The Hardy Boys as the more prominent characters, with Nancy Drew mostly a character in crossover episodes although the character did have some solo episodes.

Martin, who was 24 years old at the start of the series, left midway through the season, and was replaced by year-old Janet Louise Johnson for the final few episodes.

When the series came back for a third season, Nancy Drew was dropped from the series, with it now focusing completely on The Hardy Boys.

But soon after the change, ABC cancelled the series. Nelvana began production of another Nancy Drew television show in Nancy is now a year-old criminology student, moving to New York City and living in upscale apartment complex "The Callisto".

Nancy solved various mysteries with Bess, a gossip columnist at The Rag , and George, a mail carrier and amateur filmmaker. Ned worked on charity missions in Africa, but did make a few appearances.

Both shows were cancelled midway through their first seasons due to low ratings; the poorly syndicated half-hour shows aired in a slot outside of prime time on the newly launched The WB and UPN networks.

The movie was intended to be a pilot for a possible weekly series, which saw Nancy and her friends going off to college in a modern setting, and Nancy pursuing a journalism degree.

Like the s films, this pilot also took a more mature turn, with the mystery being a drug bust, and Nancy having a falling out with her father.

Sarah Shahi and producer Tony Phelan later admitted the pilot was not in good quality. Although a pilot was produced in April , the series could not find a sponsor.

With legal troubles and the disapproval of Harriet Adams, the idea of a series was eventually abandoned. However, Kidder was injured during filming of the first episode when the brakes failed on the car she was driving.

The pilot was not finished, and the series was cancelled. This one would revolve around Nancy as she is about to head off to college, only a "family tragedy" holds her back another year, and she finds herself in a "ghostly murder investigation".

Computer games publisher Her Interactive began publishing Nancy Drew computer games in Some game plots are taken directly, or loosely taken, from the published Nancy Drew books, such as The Secret of the Old Clock ; others are completely new ideas and are written by the Her Interactive staff.

The games are targeted for a younger audience with the rating of "ages 10 and up" and are rated "E" "Everyone" by the ESRB. They follow the popular adventure game style of play.

Players move Nancy by pointing and clicking with the mouse around in a first person virtual environment to talk to suspects, pick up clues, solve puzzles, and eventually solve the crime.

Lani Minella has voiced the Nancy character since the first game in up to the most recent game, Sea of Darkness , the 32nd game. The 33rd game, Midnight in Salem , will be voiced by a new actress.

Minella, who has voiced Nancy for 17 years, was let go from the role. Her Interactive said that the community has been nothing but supportive of Minella, and that their overall goal is to keep creating noteworthy games.

The most recent game has won various awards. The Hidden Staircase and Nancy Drew: The games have received recognition for promoting female interest in video games.

While most of the games are computer games, with most available only on PC and some newer titles also available on Mac, Her Interactive also have released some of the titles on other platforms, like DVD and Nintendo Wii system.

Her Interactive is currently in production of Nancy Drew: Midnight in Salem and is expected to release the game Spring It was designed to help children develop skills in computer programming.

The app has also won a variety of awards: Oh, that would be really cool to do a hard-boiled noir take on them.

The series, a hardboiled noir take on the characters, finds characters Frank and Joe Hardy accused of murdering their father, Fenton Hardy, and turning to a femme fatale-esque Nancy Drew to clear their names.

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